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Report on Grand Tetons area, Black Canyon of Gunnison & Chaco Canyon, June 11, 2021

I last reported on leaving Yellowstone from Cody, and was headed to Dubois, WY to be near several river headwaters – more on the headwaters later. Before heading to Dubois, I spent a day traveling the famous Bear Tooth Highway, one of the most switch-backed highways through one of the highest passes in the Continental US.  It is open generally less than 3 months per year due to high altitude weather conditions.

Dubois is a small town in the valley which rises between the Wind River Range on the southwest, here comprising the Continental Divide, and the Absaroka Range, forming the wildest part of southeastern Yellowstone.  The drive northwest from Dubois crosses over the Divide at the high Togwotee Pass, then drops down into the Grand Tetons Valley, with the Grand Teton Range to the West.  Below the Divide, on the western side of the meeting point of the two ranges, I had my third and best encounter, twice in one day, with a grizzly bear, this one a huge healthy female with two small cubs. Later, upon discussions with a local and some internet research, I found the Mama grizzly was ear tagged with number 863, but was popularly christened with the folk name ‘Felicia’ (I still haven’t quite discovered how these names originate, but once they do, they stick). As grizzlies tend to stay in the same general area for life, local sightings provide a history of a female’s cub raising success. I got some pretty nice photos of Felicia and her two cubs, so the photos posted below are dominated by Felicia’s family.

I spent parts of two days in Grand Teton NP, and tried to reproduce some of the famous historic photos, particularly one by Ansel Adams. Actually, I tried to better Adam’s most famous photo of the Teton Range beyond the Snake River.  Adams used a huge 8X12 plate format camera and did his usual custom dark room dodging and burning to create his much reproduced print.  I used the latest digital equipment to take several dozen telephoto shots, professional software to stitch these shots into a single massive resolution photo, and Adobe Lightroom professional software to dodge and burn certain areas of the final shot.  My end result has more resolution (could be printed larger with better detail), and shows all of nature’s colors, while Adam’s remains black and white. In the end, I produced a very nice large color image of the Grand Teton Range.  Adams produced a masterpiece. A large scale print of Adams’ photo sold last year at auction by Sotheby’s for $988,000. I probably could sell mine for the price of the professional printer’s charge.

From Dubois I started my return trip, heading again through Rock Springs, then south into Colorado to Montrose, to visit for the second time the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park. On the way through northwest Colorado on small county highways I drove through areas where the roadways were covered with millions of 2 inch long Mormon crickets (really a type of katydid) passing from side to side, a plague on the vegetation in the area. The Black Canyon is one of the least visited Parks in the system because it lies so far off any tourist route or major throughway. The canyon is only a little over 10 miles long, but approaches ½ mile deep with less than ¼ mile across at top, forming the narrowest, deepest chasm that I believe I have seen anywhere on earth.  The vertical cliffs are almost black, inserted with lighter colored long wavy lines of ancient magma.  Standing at railings at the cliff edge looking straight down a half mile to the river induced in me more vertigo than has any overlook at the Grand Canyon.  On hiking the half dozen or so short trails from the car pullouts to the precipice’s edge, the surrounding shrubbery sounded alive with clicking noises; upon close inspections, the small branches were seen to be covered with small beautifully marked cicadas – I have included a photo – I do not know whether these are the same species as those back east.

From Colorado I dropped into New Mexico and for the third time visited the Chaco Canyon National Historic Site.  This is a little visited Puebloan Indian site, but is by many accounts the single most important ancient Puebloan site.  The dry canyon contains within a 4 mile stretch at least 5 huge pueblos constructed entirely of native rock and ponderosa pine log roof or floor supports, with hundreds of multi-story ‘condo’ rooms.  The outer perimeter walls form giant ‘D’ shaped enclosures with central courts and dozens of Kivas. The largest and most excavated is Pueblo Bonito, which covers 3 acres and where the straight wall of the ‘D’ shape runs 175 meters. It contains approximately 650 condo units, some built up to 5 stories, with 3 Great Kivas and 32 regular Kivas (Kivas are circular, mostly underground, masonry lined rooms with huge pine trunks forming a cross pattern to support a roof structure – thought designed to mimic the earlier underground pit houses, they morphed into ceremonial structures. De-forestation to construct the pueblos and severe drought affecting crops coincided to probably explain the demise of the Chaco Canyon complex as well as almost all other Puebloan complexes in the 4-Corners region.

From Montrose I have traveled to Silver City for a couple of nights, and tomorrow return to Tucson.

You might wish to skip the remaining sections of this report and go directly down to photos, as the remainder contains a summary of my thoughts, developed over a number of years, on the origins of three major river systems in the US.

River Headwaters

I traveled to Dubois in part to visit the area of river headwaters for three major continental US drainage systems which I have grown to believe are misnamed, resulting in their sources being unappreciated. I will briefly summarize my reasoning for each river system, identifying each with the current accepted names (which I try to show are in error). Historically, river naming conventions generally attempt to use the name of a) the longest tributary above the confluences, b) the tributary with the largest flow, or c) the tributary which drains the largest area.

Mississippi River Drainage:  Once the extent of the Missouri River became known (after expedition of Lewis & Clarke), it became obvious that the Mississippi River should have been named the Missouri below the confluence. The Missouri above the confluence is twice as long, drains 3 times the area and generally equals or exceeds the flow of the Mississippi. The Mississippi, however, was named so long ago there was no change.  Unappreciated still, at the confluence with the Missouri, just inside the western border of N. Dakota, the Yellowstone River has the larger flow, and appears to have a slightly longer run as the Missouri has an indefinite start just west of Bozeman, a wetland into which numerous small streams run. Thus, I posit that if properly named, the lower Mississippi and Missouri all should be known as the Yellowstone River, the mightiest river in the US, which runs down to the Gulf Coast.

Columbia River Drainage: At the confluence with the Columbia River, which comes south out of Canada, the Snake River drains slightly more area and is slightly longer above the confluence. The flows are roughly comparable. Therefore I argue the Columbia River, which flows west between Oregon and Washington to the Pacific, should properly be named the Snake River.

Colorado River Drainage: At the confluence with the Colorado River, in Canyonlands NP in Utah, the Green River drains a larger area and is longer above the confluence; the flows vary depending on relative snow packs from year to year. The Colorado River below the confluence should properly be named the Green. (This actually is a known issue, which resulted from a US congressional play by the Colorado delegates early in the 20th century.  At that time the Colorado River above the confluence was named the Grand River, and the river running below the Canyonlands was named the Colorado, not for the state, but for the Colorado Plateau in southern Utah and northern Arizona through which the river carved the Grand Canyon. The Colorado state Congressional delegation somehow got the Congress, over the objections of the Utah and Arizona delegations, to rename the Grand River running out of the State of Colorado as the Colorado River, implying that this was the major tributary rather than the Green).  Anyway, either the Green River should be renamed the Colorado, and the river running out of Colorado should go back to the name Grand River, or, the river below the confluence should be renamed the Green.

My Conclusions: The three great river systems, which together drain over 55% of the continental US, should be known as the

Yellowstone River which drains, into the Atlantic at the Gulf of Mexico, the central 40% of the entire US which lies east of the continental divide,

Snake River which drains, into the Pacific, almost the entire northwest US which lies west of the continental divide, and

Green River which drains, into the Gulf of California, the entire southwest and part of the northwest US lying west of the continental divide.

Most interesting for me and the reason for the visit to Dubois, these three river systems have their headwaters within less than 70 miles of each other, centered approximately on Dubois, WY. The Yellowstone starts at Younts Peak about 33 miles NNW of Dubois, just inside southeastern Yellowstone Park.  The Snake starts at Ocean Plateau South Mountain, about 16 miles WNW of Younts Peak in southeast Yellowstone Park. And the Green starts at Winifred Peak, just south of Gannett Peak about 27 miles south of Dubois in the Wind River Range. Thus the headwaters of the 3 drainage systems for 55% of the continental US all start next to each other, just across the continental divide, running respectively east, west and south.

My apologies for the aside discourse on river headwaters.

Later. Dave




Travel Report from Yellowstone NP, Wyoming, May 30 2021

I last posted from Billings, MT. I drove up the Yellowstone River to Livingston, the original RR line junction which opened up Yellowstone over 100 years ago. From there I continued following the Yellowstone River south to Gardiner, MT, which sits at the Northern entrance to the Park.  Spending 8 days in Gardiner, I spent about double normal price for a room in the Big Rock Hotel. Elk doe grazed on the grass outside my room. I could not extend my stay in Gardiner after 8 days, so moved to West Yellowstone for an additional 6 days, where the small motel room was even more expensive.

Daily I departed my room at 5 am to travel either into Lamar Valley or Hayden Valley, generally arriving at sunrise, about 6 am.  Close to half of the days saw heavy rain, snow or ice storms, with wind – on one day the Park Service was shutting down all roads at each junction as I cleared them.  As in the past, I found I was joined in the early mornings by just a couple of dozen or so professional photographers and “wolf chasers”. Generally we had 3 hours to ourselves – then about 9 in the morning regular visitors and RVs would start to show up on the roads.  By 10 am the roads would become crowded and by noon there were huge traffic jams, and parking at all tourist sites would be overflow.  Every day, upon leaving the Park down the Madison River to West Yellowstone, I would pass cars going into the Park stopping in the middle of the road to take photos out the window of the first bison they had seen.  As over half the cars did this, I started measuring the length of the traffic jams behind the bison.  On two days I measured just over 5 miles of traffic jam, and then on my last day exiting this route, the start of Memorial Day weekend, the traffic jam ran all the way from Madison Junction to the entrance at West Yellowstone – exactly 14 miles.  These people would take 1 to 2 hours to just reach the first junction getting into the Park.

Lamar Valley contains probably the largest concentration of American Bison in existence; total numbers in the Park range from 3,500 to 5,000 animals – these are not re-introduced nor mixed blood, but direct descendants of the remaining original bison which in the great plains once numbered in the millions.  Both valleys also are the hunting ranges and den locations of the two most visible wolf packs, which generally prefer elk, but will take young or frail bison.

I averaged 7 hours a day over a total of 15 days inside the Park.  A great deal of the time was seeking relatively close encounters with grizzly bear and wolves, the highlights for wildlife photography in the area (most wolf and grizzly sightings are at around a mile distant, and although interesting to watch through a spotting scope, are not amenable to photography; decent photos require getting close, though the Park mandates a 100 yard limit, so large telephoto is mandatory).  I managed to photograph 2 different grizzly encounters – the first with the wonderful antics of a 7 year old “blond” female which the biologists had nicknamed “Snow” due to its light coloration. For two hours, between bouts of eating, she preened, sat like a dog, contorted to scratch, snoozed with a log for a pillow, stretched and balanced on logs. With about 25 other photographers (see photo), we lined the road for almost 2 hours enjoying the show, except for a brief encounter with a bull bison which wanted to pass through. The second encounter was with a very dark, huge, male and female turning stones and grazing some plants on a mountain side. These two looked far more menacing than Snow. The Park’s first grizzly mauling of the year took place just two days ago on a trail a couple of miles from Gardiner where I spent my first 8 days. The hiker survived, but no more details on the attack were available.

Wolves can be seen often near their respective dens in the spring.  If the weather is nice, the pups come out to play – I have included no photos as the dens are more than a mile from where visitors may go.  I did spend over 2 hours on a frigid early morning watching 5 wolves from the Hayden Valley pack devour an elk kill in very heavy fog – it made for some interesting photos.  I also watched a lone young wolf wind its way up and down the banks of the Yellowstone River, apparently trying to catch trout, and going after one Mallard duck, all without success.

As usual I found lots of elk and, in one small corner of the Park (above Pebble Creek), moose.  The bulls of both species are just starting to grow their giant antlers, now stubby and still very much covered in velvet.  The Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep, not often encountered, all look very ratty as they are losing big chunks of their winter coats. A band of males feeding on an almost impossibly steep mountain slope made for some unique photos. I also visited the Le Hardy Rapids on the Yellowstone where in mid-May the Harlequin Ducks do their diving and amazing maneuvering in fully boiling rapids (these ducks are quite rare to see except in far northern coastal waters).  The male Harlequins are one of the most striking of birds. Other uncommon birds are the American Dipper, the only songbird that dives and flies under water for its food, and the Barrow’s Goldeneye, photos of both of which are included.  I also lucked into a close-up session with a male Dusky Grouse doing a full blown mating display, with bared-breast spots and drumming, hoping to attract females. I am fortunate in being able to annually visit and photograph almost the entire population of Sandhill Cranes in existence, as they all winter in a single spot in Southern Arizona.  However, for the spring and summer they migrate to spread across the northern US and southern Canada for breeding.  In Yellowstone I got to photograph a female at her nest and an adult in breeding colors in the frozen snow. Finally, the Park is the home of huge numbers of Ravens – many have learned to acquire food from bear-proof trash containers – I have included a photo of a particularly handsome one getting ready to dine.

I drove yesterday to Cody outside the East entrance to the Park.  I will stay here a few days to catch up on some chores, and then have reserved a room in DuBois, WY, heading up the Wind River Range on the Continental Divide with the highest mountains in the state (and some of the highest in the continental US).  This range provides the most remote headwaters of two major river systems – the Yellowstone which runs North completely across the Park and ultimately into the Missouri and Mississippi to drain into the Atlantic, and the Snake which runs southwest, then north and west to join the Columbia River to drain into the Pacific.  I probably next will head basically South towards home.  I have been reviewing online a completely new set of Canon professional camera bodies and long lenses which would significantly improve my capture distance for wildlife photos, permit lower light capture while simultaneously reducing my carrying weight – in all, a seemingly impossible dream a few years ago.  I, of course, suddenly feel the need to own this new equipment before taking further photos.

Later, Dave


Brief Update on Driving Trip North Thru Rockies as of May 13, 2021

I last reported on visiting the Red Desert of Southern Wyoming around Rock Springs. On my departure I made a second pass through the high ridge surrounding the Great Basin, where I enjoyed watching a couple of Pronghorn males sparring.  From there I continued north to Thermopolis, which I have visited multiple times for its  great dinosaur museum and proximity to the Wind River Canyon and Dinwoody rock art, carved over a period of several thousand years (probably by ancestors to the Shoshone) – I previously have included a number of photos in reports, so will not here. Thermopolis claims to have the largest hot springs in the world, although I’m pretty sure I have visited larger in the ancient Roman city of Hierapolis, Turkey.

From Thermopolis I drove northeast, crossing the Bighorn Mountains to Buffalo, one of my favorite small high plains towns.  If you have read either the best-selling Joe Picket Game Warden series by CJ Box, or the best-selling (and movie) series of Sheriff Longmire by Craig Johnson (I have read most of both), you may have wondered whether the fictional towns of Saddlestring (Picket) or Durant (Longmire), really exist.  Both fictional towns are based entirely on Buffalo, on Highway 16 at the base of the Bighorns.  I have twice looked at properties for a possible summer home in Buffalo, but this year houses are going under contract usually within a day or two of listing.  I traveled north just 30 miles to Sheridan where I also have looked at properties with no luck.  The weather was mostly very cold with way too much wind and rain.  I was surprised on my morning walks along Little Goose Creek to hear and see so many Ring-necked Pheasants.

I next drove east, well out of my intended northerly path, to the Black Hills of South Dakota and a favorite small town, Custer.  Every day I cruised the looped roads and dirt tracks through the Custer State Park with its rich wildlife and lake birds. I saw no Ring-necked Pheasants here even though it is the State Bird of South Dakota. Why would a state name as its state bird one originally imported from Asia as a game species???

Upon returning from my detour I drove on north through the Crow Reservation to Billings where I anticipated visiting the Pictograph Cave State Park. The cave was renowned since its excavation in the 1930s both for its pictographs and human occupation originally dated to almost 5,000 years ago, according to still existing signage at the cave.  When I went online to get more info on the very early occupation, I discovered current online information, from the official sites, is completely silent as to occupation dating results.  I then discovered a 2014 dissertation by a U of Montana archaeologist, who tested the much earlier archaeological dating claims, and found them probably invalid (not intentional, more sloppiness). The absolute oldest radiocarbon date from the bottom of the cave was just 3,800 years ago, more in line with dating of the earliest Plains Indian sites. Further, most of the 30,000 artifacts reported excavated and catalogued from the site have disappeared.  Mulloy, the final archaeologist doing excavations, claimed the 2,000 artifacts he catalogued had been shipped to the University of Montana, but the University claimed to have received at most half the artifacts.  Drawings of the artifacts don’t support early dates.  The pictographs exist, but are mostly now invisible from deterioration, leaving only smudged red pictographs which include rifles and a horse and very faint anthropomorphs, definitely post European arrival. The only evidence for 2000 year old pictographs is a single stone fallen from the cave wall with a charcoal drawing of a turtle which carbon dated to around that time (this evidence shows the charcoal used on the stone was 2,000 years old, not that the drawing was made 2000 years ago).  This new evidence, for me, more than somewhat diminishes the importance and earlier fame of the site, and left me wondering why the Montana State Park website has scrubbed information on the sites importance and is completely silent regarding the new dating, as well as the sad state of the few pictographs.

Today I traveled up the Yellowstone River to Livingston, just north of Yellowstone Parks north entrance, and have reservations in a couple of days in Gardiner right at the North entrance, where I intend to spend over a week driving the Lamar River Valley looking for big bear and wolf packs.

All is well. Later, Dave


Travel Report – Dave Cox Driving Western US, Mon April 26, 2021

Hello.  After just over a year and half of forced home stay due first to cataract surgery and then to Covid, I received my second dose of the Moderna vaccine 5 weeks ago, and decided to just start driving in a northerly direction for a few months (Tucson already had hit its first 100 degree day).  I left the RV trailer home this trip because I suspected (apparently correctly) most of my age group now were vaccinated, and the RVs would fill the highways of the West by mid-Spring; thus obtaining hookup sites might be difficult.  Motels should still be looking for tourists until summer travel season starts.  I did book 10 nights for a hotel in Gardiner, at the north entrance to Yellowstone, for mid-May thinking that general tourism may start by then and Yellowstone normally gets booked months in advance.

I left Tucson March 31, and traveled first to the mountain town of Show Low. My second night in a cheap Days Inn, I was awakened at midnight to the yells, laughter and curses of several incredibly drunk males.  By 2 am the laughter turned to angry fighting and door slamming.  I watched out the window as a number of police cars showed up, and then discovered the disturbance had been in the room across the hall from my door.  By 4 am an ambulance had carried one comatose male away, two other male adults were hauled off to jail, and one 12 year old male kid, with no legal guardian present, was hauled off to child services.  After providing what little information I had to the police, I decided further sleep was not in the cards.

I spent about a week in Cortez and Delores, CO, and a couple of days in Bluff, UT, where I had a flock of Turkey Vultures roosting in the tree right behind my room.  I also went next door to a favorite steakhouse, to find I had to order and pay at the front entrance, then was directed around the side to outdoor only seating; the huge wood fired grill was inactive, and they cooked the steaks inside and brought them out in a Styrofoam container, with plastic silverware and condiment packs – the worst steak dinner I ever have had.

From Bluff and Green River I spent some days revisiting a number of great petroglyph sites displaying 11,000 years of rock art, including in Capitol Reef National Park, Arches National Park and along the Colorado River cliffs near Moab. One relatively well known panel along the Colorado River is popularly named the “Bear Hunt” as it shows a very large bear surrounded by bow hunters and bighorn sheep; on close inspection I note the bear petroglyph actually overlays an earlier sheep hunt panel commonly displayed by the prehistoric Fremont Indians, while the later bear is a common theme of the later ancestral Ute Indians (who claim some continuity with the Fremont).

Continuing on north into the Uinta Basin, I drove to Vernal, UT, where I enjoyed once again the Dinosaur National Monument and its Freemont petroglyphs. From Vernal I continued North to Rock Springs, WY, where I have enjoyed driving the dirt roads into the Red Desert to visit the White Mountain Petroglyphs (dated 1000 – 1800 AD, apparently created by ancestors of the high plains Indians), and then the next day  looping through wild horse territory, with pronghorn, desert elk, coyotes and, of course, wild horses.  The Red Desert is remarkable in that most of it is a great basin from which water cannot exit – it also happens to lie on the continental divide, meaning that the divide here is discontinuous and splits into two lines which surround the basin.

I seem to have traveled too quickly to the north, as the last 10 days have seen overcast freezing weather with high winds, which will continue into this coming week.  Nevertheless, I intend to head a little further north into central Wyoming for the next couple of weeks – probably looking again for a possible summer home in Buffalo or Sheridan.  All is well after vaccination.

Later, Dave






Travel Report from San Miguel de Allende, Chamber Music Festival, Mexico, August 27, 2019

I have spent the last two weeks, and will spend the next, in San Miguel for its 41st Annual Chamber Music Festival.  For the final 3 weekends I have and will enjoy the Griphon Trio from Canada and the Symphonie Atlantique from the Netherlands.  I have been staying in a small apartment on the 4th floor of the Hospedaje Colibri, with a lovely shaded terrace overlooking the town to the west.  San Miguel, known as either the Cradle of Mexican Independence (This is where the early rebels, including Father Hildalgo, started the War of Independence in 1810), or the Land of Eternal Spring (located in the Central Highlands at about 6,200 feet San Miguel has year-round lovely weather – lots of major late afternoon thunderstorms this time of year making everything fresh and green).  The entire central portion of the town is a protected Unesco World Heritage Site with brightly colored colonial buildings and the towering and famous Parroquia, the European inspired pink church on the town square, which history claims was engineered by a local stonemason using an ancient postcard picture from Belgium as the blueprint.

Most music performances have been in the Peralta Theater, the westernmost opera house in Mexico built about 140 years ago.  The Gryphon Trio (pianist, violinist and cellist) are artists in residence as faculty at the University of Toronto, School of Music, and have already released 28 CD recordings.  I enjoyed their performances of trios composed by Beethoven, Schubert and Brahms among others.  They also have commissioned many new compositions, including one they performed by a young composer named Dinuk Wijeratne, born in Sri Lanka, with Eastern Asia influences and odd chromatic scales.  At a climactic point the pianist heaved off his bench and simply clobbered about 20% of the keyboard by bringing his entire right forearm down to strike simultaneously every key between his right elbow and hand – clashing, but exciting as the violin and cello were bowing up a storm.  I also attended a master class they gave to a young piano trio group from Mexico City, using Beethoven’s 1st Piano Trio for the lesson.

The Symphonie Atlantique is a young group from the Netherlands, which performs exclusively on period instruments, and has sufficient players of odd instruments to perform a large number of lesser performed Baroque, Classical and Romantic chamber music pieces.  I went to a conference where they demonstrated and discussed the various period instruments, about half of which were originals from the periods, one being a 19th century wooden bassoon that had actually been played in a live performance with the great early Romantic period violinist Paganini.

I have not avoided food and drink.  Perhaps too many martinis and margaritas, at Hank’s two-for-one happy hour or Tio Lucas’ bar directly across the road from the entrance to the Peralta Theater.  I have enjoyed both places for well over 20 years and so have fond memories to keep the booze company. The food continues to be the best at Hecho en Mexico and Antigua Trattoria Romana, long time favorites.

I also have not avoided wine and cigars (both cheap, from the La Europea shop on Canal Street), enjoyed on my terrace where I spend most afternoons reading and listening to my own music.  For this trip I bought a new fabulous travel speaker which wires to my portable digital audio player (wherein I have stored my entire music collection).  The speaker, a MiniRig 3 made in England, is the size of the bottom half of a coffee mug, and produces astounding great sound with admirable bass. Thus this entire trip has been turned into a gluttonous feast of music, science fiction, food, booze and cigars.  Not a bad way to ditch southern Arizona summer heat, where I must return next week.  Later.  Dave

Travel Report for Pamplona, Burgos and Madrid, Spain, June 10, 2019

I last wrote from Bordeaux, France, from where I traveled by bus to Pamplona in the ancient Kingdom of Navarra on the edge of Basque Country.  This is the famous setting for Hemmingway’s book “The Sun Also Rises.”  He wrote most of the book at the Café (Casino) Iruna (Iruna is the Basque name for Pamplona), in the central Plaza del Castillo.  For those who don’t recall, he spent several months here, drinking heavily with his literary friends from Paris, and the book, although a novel, based its characters on his actual friends and placed its setting in Pamplona and the Iruna Cafe.  This novel made famous the San Fermin Festival held every July with the Running of the Bulls.   I spent my wine and cigar evenings, as on previous trips, at the terrace tables of the Iruna Café.

Pamplona has a number of 12th century churches and artwork, all Romanesque in style, which is on the old side even for Spain.  Its small Museum of Fine Arts contains many Roman mosaics and statues, wonderful 11th and 12th century Romanesque capitals from the Cathedral, and a number of decent paintings, including one of Goya’s greatest portraits, that of the Marquis of San Adrian.  The cathedral has the alabaster mausoleum for Carlos III and Leonor, King and Queen of Navarra in the early 15th century before the conquest by Ferdinand and Isabella which united the Iberian Peninsula.  The mausoleum comes with included sets of alabaster mourners arranged around all four sides.

My apartment in Pamplona was a long narrow affair running the entire depth of the 6 story building and so had outward facing windows on both sides.  Although recently renovated, the kitchen was outfitted with matching, dazzling hot-pink, retro-style fridge, toaster and teapot (I included a photo just to verify my report).

From Pamplona I traveled the short distance to Burgos, the seat of the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, and the place they met with Columbus to send him off for his discovery of the New World.  Here is the great 12th to 14th century Romanesque/Gothic Cathedral which, though not quite the largest (Seville’s has that honor), is probably the finest in all Spain. It also now is the resting place for the remains of Rodrigo Diaz, the most famous of all warriors who led the expulsion of the Moors from most of Northern Spain.  He is better known as “El Cid,” and a mighty bronze statue of him upon a great horse sits at the Plaza El Cid and main bridge into Burgos.  The cathedral also contains a number of mausoleums to patrons and royalty, with alabaster likenesses of the dead within.

My apartment in Burgos was one of those 6th floor roof-top jobs where you literally are under the sloping roof, so your ceilings slope downwards almost to the floor at the walls.  Very peculiar living.  The windows jutting out of the ceiling opened onto the Plaza Mayor affording a magnificent view of the Plaza and Burgos Cathedral.  I have included a large panorama photo of the view taken under black thunderstorm clouds.

Burgos sits by the famous Sierra de Atapuerca sites where a series of underground water courses has opened pits, or “simas,” and caves which provided many of the earliest known locations outside of Africa for early humans.  The Museum of Human Evolution has recently been opened in Burgos to display all the discoveries made at Atapuerca.  This includes 1.3 million year old hominids seemingly from Asia rather than Africa, 1.1 million year old remains of Homo-antecessor which the scientists here now believe was the common ancestor of Neanderthal and Sapiens, and 400,000 plus year old genetic tested specimens from the Sima Pits now confirmed as early neanderthalensis, necessarily making the sapiens divergence much older than thought (probably around 800,000-900,000 years ago).  These continuing discoveries make Atapuerca one of the most active early human sites in the world, and together with southern Morocco and parts of Asia continually challenge the notion that almost all hominid evolution occurred in eastern Africa.

From Burgos I traveled by train back to Madrid last Thursday, and found a terrific set of apartments just south of the Plaza Mayor, putting me into the Latina neighborhood, but still just a short walk from Huertas where I often stay.  Both are famous for their tapas bars and plazas with terraced cafes.  Now-a-days many wonderful bronze statues are placed in locations where they perfectly mimic insertion into the crowds of people, although they don’t seem to move much.  I have included several photos of this wonderful form of public sculpture.

I did spend over 3 hours in the fabulous National Museum of Archaeology, my third time.  It covers the human evolution in southern Europe, most of which occurred in the Iberian Peninsula, followed by the Iberian bronze age cultures and, of course, the many occupations and settlements, first by the Phoenicians followed by the Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths and Moors ending finally with the Reconquista.   Several of the most outstanding pieces are life-size Iberian funerary urns of ladies from the late Bronze Age; the best known is the “Lady of Elche” from the late 5th century BC.

I am winding down this trip, and fly back to Tucson Wednesday the 12th.  Life continues to be good.  Later.  Dave

Travel Report on Basque Country in North of Spain and Bordeaux, France, May 27, 2019

I last reported from Cordoba, from where I traveled north back through Madrid and on to Bilbao, capital of Basque Country.  This is an autonomous community of the Basque people in northern Spain which extends into southern France.  The region is mountainous with a high level of rainfall, and is spectacularly verdant and lush with its many rivers.  I spent 5 days in Bilbao, with unusual beautiful sunshine weather.  Basque Country is noted for its food, and especially its pintxos, the Basque variety of tapas, though these generally are far more ornate and cost extra.

I spent a number of hours in the Museum of Fine Arts, with paintings by Gauguin, Ribera, Zurbaran, Goya and El Greco among others.  I also circled outside and inside the famous Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, a number of times, noting it’s curved and twisting titanium armored plated and glass exterior.  Inside are permanent exhibitions of many modern artists (most still alive), including Jenny Holzer and Richard Serra – these more often than not were not paintings, but massive room filling creations (Serra’s “Matter of Time” includes huge curving metal walls that undulate and lean oddly as they rise to about 15 feet and fill a museum hall that is over the size of a football field; Holzer’s “Things Indescribable” uses moving neon lights, animated metal things and human bones to display disturbing ideas looking at the darkness in humans during war and conflict).  Unique and interesting, but not really my cup of tea.

From there I traveled the short distance east to the small coastal town of Lekeitio, a real gem sitting in its verdant bay.  With a balcony view of the bay I was able to enjoy the 3 days of rain from my own little wine and cigar hangout.  I also almost thought I had reached food heaven with a small local tavern where they had the most wondrous seafood soup, filled with fresh fish and small shrimps.  This was a first course choice of the daily lunch menu, and was served in a huge metal taurine from which you could fill at least 3 large soup bowls.  The included wine didn’t come in a glass, but was always an entire bottle placed on the table for however much was desired (you do need some self-restraint if you wish to stay awake for the afternoon).  Several days later I moved on to San Sebastian, where I have visited several times before.  It is one of the most beautiful bay cities in the world, and is rated higher than any other world city for Michelin star restaurants (I visited none).  The regular small restaurants, taverns and bars mostly have wonderful pintxos and wonderful wine, all simply amazingly inexpensive.  I visited for the second time the fascinating Aquarium with its giant tanks over the sea.

Being so close, and never having visited Bordeaux, I decided to take the short international bus up from San Sebastian.  I am in a loft apartment on the longest pedestrian street in the country, the Rue Sainte Catherine.  Close enough to the 11th century Cathedral St Andrew and the 12th century Basilica St Michael that the church bells seem constant, fortunately drowning out the sometimes almost constant wail of sirens (no idea why they have been so active).  I visited the Musee des Beaux Arts, said to be the second best classical painting museum in the country after the Louvre.  It contains works by Brugghen, Murillo, van Dyck, Rubens, Matisse and Renoir, among others, along with a special exhibition of some of the darkest drawings by Goya.  I had not remembered that Goya moved to Bordeaux from Spain in his final years of going crazy and died here.

Tomorrow I return to Spain and go to Pamplona, at the edge of Basque Country, just a month before the running of the bulls.  There I still will find great pintxos and chocolate, if my memory of 11 years ago is sound.  Later.  Dave

Travel Report from Salamanca, Seville, Jerez and Cordoba, Spain, May 11, 2019

Because my first 4 days in Salamanca were wet and cold, I extended the stay in my favorite town to enjoy the forecasted greatly improved weather – this had me moving to a new apartment down by the river.  My last 3 days were sunny and warm, and permitted some good photo opportunities, as well as more comfortable sidewalk tapas bars in the late afternoon.  Of special note, I continued to visit some of my old haunts which I first encountered when studying Spanish in Salamanca in 2003.  One tavern, with great wood fired grilled meats, then was called Patio Chico.  I had trouble locating it years later until I realized its name had changed to Ruta de la Plata.  Still the same great place – and I recognized one of the bartenders and the grill master who had been there for well over a decade.  I wondered some why the haunted eyes of the grill master now seemed more especially familiar, and then realized he was the spitting image of Jack Dorsey, billionaire founder of Twitter. I include a photo below of him with yours truly for your comparison.  Miguel still grills great steak, panceta and sausage – more valuable by far to me than Twitter.  He never had heard of Jack Dorsey.

I climbed the Salamanca Bell Tower for the Old and New Cathedrals in order to get some large composite photos from roof height of the Romanesque and Gothic dome towers and decorations. Both photos are composites of around 45 individual photos, giving a particularly wide viewing angle and tons of detail (you won’t find photos like these elsewhere).  As over the years I have written much, and published dozens of photos, covering Salamanca’s history and edifices I won’t do a repeat now.  The town is feeling more like a second home than a place to visit.

From Salamanca I returned to Madrid, hitting 3 of my favorite tapas haunts in the Santa Ana neighborhood, before traveling on south for a while, stopping first for several days in Seville.  There I had a 3 room apartment that opened onto a large patio.  I visited for the first time the lovely Casa Pilatos, with Renaissance courtyards and pillars and wonderful Mudejar (post Islam Moorish architectural style) decorations.  Also, spent a morning near the huge tourist line to enter the Cathedral, where I watched a street performance of Flamenco.  Again, for long discourses on all things Seville and large numbers of photos, you must go back to prior travelogues available on the website.

From Seville I traveled south to finally visit Jerez de la Frontera.  Jerez is the birthplace of sherry (“jerez” in Spanish), a fortified wine aged in oak barrels.  I used to think of sherry as that disgustingly sweet wine with which 1960’s TV and movie starlets liked to get tipsy.  What I have discovered in later years is that almost all good sherry comes from just the Palomino grapes, and always is dry (not sweet), but includes several very different colors and tastes based on the aging and whether the fortification allows a floral (yeast) growth to cover the top.  The sweet Sherries come from Moscatel and Ximenez grapes, and mostly seem inferior.  The name “sherry” legally can only be applied to the wine from a small triangle area around the town of Jerez.  I spent several hours at a small Tabanco (originally the name for a tobacco shop, but now come to be applied to the bars that carry the oak barrels of sherry, where one often can find impromptu flamenco concerts or dances).  Paulino, the owner of Tobanco Paulino spent over an hour sitting with me, giving me the history and secrets of making dry sherry (I followed only about 80% of his explanations as his was a rapid Spanish) – you will see the photo of us below.  While in Jerez I stayed in a small efficiency apartment well centered in town, and visited the Alcazar (fortress), Cathedral and related church; the churches both were mostly Gothic in architectural style, but had very poor quality stones which already were sluffing off pieces after just 500 years (2000 year old Roman construction and 1000 year old Romanesque churches have much better quality stone).

From Jerez I traveled to Cordoba, one of my favorite towns, for the annual Festival de los Patios, where dozens of wealthy homes open up their patios which are covered with spring flowers in bloom.  The Great Mosque (Mezquita), for which construction started in the 8th Century and reached completion by the 10th Century, was then the center of the largest city and the major Caliphate in the Mediterranean.  After the Reconquista of this part of Spain, the entire Mosque was converted to a cathedral though only the central portion of the Mosque was renovated. The entirety is an Islamic wonder rivaled, in my opinion, only by the Alhambra in Granada and the Taj Mahal in India.  The entire interior, excepting only the space converted into the Cathedral, is a forest of double stone arches supporting the roof over the space of several football fields.  The Mihrab, which unusually does not face Mecca, has three arched portals the outside of which is completely covered with mosaics made of semi-precious stones.  Inside are protected a number of marble pieces from the original Visigoth Church upon which the 8th Century Mosque originally was constructed.  As with Salamanca and Seville, I previously have reported at length on these towns and their vast architectural treasures, and so will not repeat this trip.

I have enjoyed evenings at the Sociedad Plateros (silversmiths society) restaurant with excellent Andalucian dishes. They have barrels of a local “fino” wine – “Montilla” – similar to sherry but in my view much better – it goes great with an order of deep fried lightly battered strips of eggplant with honey, a specialty in Andalucia.  I also spent one evening in the expensive Taberna Patio de la Juderia, with terrific food and a nightly Flamenco performance.  Every late afternoon I sat on the Plaza Agrupacion de Cofradias, a beautiful triangular plaza on the downhill street to the Mezquita, and had red wine while listening to the street performer, a blind old man with a guitar singing soulful Andalucian songs.  Each afternoon the Royal Stables of Cordoba, where by order of the King, they have maintained the pure-bred Spanish horses since the early 1500s, bring one of their beautiful stallions to the plaza for pictures with tourists; this to entice the public to purchase tickets for one of the horse shows during the festival.

I certainly noticed, after publishing the current webpage, that I have included photos of myself in 4 different taverns.  This – after spending years publishing hundreds of photos with only a rare one including my face.  I guess because I am visiting so many familiar places I have taken far fewer scenic photos, and perhaps have spent somewhat more time relaxing in my favorite afternoon haunts.

Tomorrow I return to Madrid from where I will head north to Basque Country for a number of days in Bilbao, Lekeitio and San Sebastian, after which I will travel on North into France.  Later.  Dave


Travel Report on Avila Holy Week Processions, and Salamanca, Spain, April 26, 2019

Upon arrival in Madrid from Rome I spent the night, and then traveled by train to the ancient and conservative Catholic town of Avila in Castile y Leon.  Avila started with Roman defenses, but now is famed for its 11th century medieval walls and towers which still completely encircle the Old City.  Its 11th to 14th century Gothic cathedral sits on the high point in the town where its apse forms part of the defensive wall structure and 5 entrance gates.

I specifically hurried to Avila for its Easter week sacred processions, which happen each evening after sunset.  All over central Spain, various regional brotherhoods, known as cofradias in Spanish, maintain floats, here called “tronos,” year-round in the churches and cathedrals.  The floats are foundations for religious sculptures and scenes exhibiting events of the holy week leading to the crucifixion and resurrection.  The cofradias, with various other penitents, dress in colorful robes with masks and pointed headdress, called “capirotes”, then march with the tronos through the darkening streets of the old cities, usually with a band playing mournful music.  The processions in Castile and Leon are considered the most solemn and authentic, dating back many centuries.  Most Americans upon first seeing such a procession are stunned that the penitents appear to be dressed as the Ku Klux Klan, though most robes, masks and tall pointed headdress are colorful.  The penitent’s capirote has been traditional for centuries and the head-dress with mask is worn out of modesty, as penance is to be practiced anonymously.  No one seems to know why, or how, the KKK wound up with such a similar copy of this ancient penitent dress, though KKK robes always are white.

I had a wonderful hotel room in Palacio de la Velada, a late 15th  to early 16th century palace, one of many in town; of its roughly 140 rooms, I had one of only five with a balcony opening onto the Cathedral plaza, and so watched some of the processions from my private balcony.  I believe I watched 5 entire processions and obtained some wonderful video.  Again, I wish I could figure out how easily to downsize the high resolution video (each several minute clip of video is many Gigabytes of data) and make it available on my website.

Avila’s mostly 14th century Gothic Cathedral is a magnificent wonder – but Avila has also, just outside the Arco San Vicente Gate, the early 12th century Basilica San Vicente, thought by some to be the finest Romanesque Church in Spain.  It is a beauty inside and out, and the Romanesque portals, arches and capitals are the best preserved I have seen.  Also, inside just before the altar, sits a massive Romanesque cenotaph to the martyred Saints Vicente, Sabina and Cristeta, with the wonderful gold covered sides and preserved carved and painted wooden scenes from the martyrdom.

After 4 days in Avila, I traveled again by train onward west the short distance to my favorite town, Salamanca.  The weather, unfortunately, was chilly and rainy almost my entire time in Avila, and has grown only worse upon arrival in Salamanca.  The locals are complaining this is a somewhat unusual early spring pattern. Tomorrow the weather is forecast finally to improve, and so I have just booked 3 more days in Salamanca to take advantage of some decent sunshine and warmth for photography and outdoor tapas bar evenings.

Once again I am housed in a magnificent location.  The Baroque Plaza Mayor of Salamanca was built in the early 1700s by the Churriguera cousins, and is one of the largest, and considered by many the finest, Plaza Mayor in all of Spain; to my eyes it easily improves on the great Plaza Mayor of Madrid.  Built per request of the King, it became the city center and was used also for bull fights until the last century. It is formed as a huge unequally sided square, with close to 100 arches on the ground levels and 3 stories of balconied rooms above, completely enclosing the square.  Six large entrance arches permit access from all city directions.  All is constructed of the Salamanca soft yellow limestone.  Ten of the rooms above the Plaza have been converted to a private hotel within the last year.  Each room is modern; 5 rooms open on the market to the East of the Plaza, and 6 have wide double glass doors and balconies opening out onto the Plaza itself.  I have one of these rooms.  In my years visiting Salamanca I never have been able to enter the Plaza’s upper floor rooms for a view and now I am living, for a few days, in one.

Later.  Dave


Travel Report on Lucca, Pisa, and 2nd Visits to Florence and Rome, Italy, Apr. 18, 2019

I last reported on Florence, to which I will again return in this segment. From Florence I took, on April 9, the regional train to Lucca, an ancient walled Tuscany town west of Florence, and famous for its complete set of 16th Century walls built to defend against the threat from the Florence Kingdom which then extended to just 15 kilometers from Lucca; the walls never saw defensive use, and now form over 4 kilometers of one of the finest raised set of gardens, overlooks and bike and walking paths completely circling the old city.  The cathedral and the Basilica amaze with their white marble Romanesque and Gothic exteriors. I stayed in a lovely B&B, the Relais Lucca, just inside the walls, and spent a fair amount of time just getting mildly lost in the maze of old city alleys and streets which run at odd angles.

I took a day trip to visit the famous Cathedral and Tower of Pisa, just 25 minutes away on the wonderful local trains.  Although the regional trains are not the various high-speed versions, and stop at many local stations, they still run at over 100 mph, leave and arrive on time (generally to the minute), and spend just minutes in the stations.  Travel by train is faster, cheaper and more convenient than renting an auto (unless you are with a group).

The Pisa cathedral probably is the most amazing I have seen in Europe, sitting inside its own set of medieval walls, and surrounded by sumptuous and massive related marble edifices all set in manicured green expansive lawns.  All the related structures seem ultimately to exist just to showcase that weird, but now expected, gorgeous white bell tower – it just does not look like it should be able to resist falling.  This World Heritage Site seemed to me to have more tourists than any site I have so far visited.  It is hard to exaggerate the numbers of tour groups and student groups scurrying like thousands of ants over the grounds and into and out of the various structures.  And for the thousands of visitors each hour they provided one set of public toilets, with two stalls for women and two for men.  These were not well maintained, had lines which tested bladder control, and required first lining up at a small ticket office to purchase the 80 cent right to use same.  This certainly seemed an utterly preposterous operational miss for such an astounding site.

From Lucca I had to back-track to Florence before returning to Rome.  I spent two days back in Florence to pick up a couple more visits to their unmatched wealth of artistic highlights.  I visited the Medici Capellas, the domed burial crypts for the most powerful members of that wealthy Florence family dynasty.  The chapels were designed by Michelangelo, and contain a number of his marble sculptures and architectural achievements.  I spent 5 hours the next day visiting a one-time exhibition, presented in the Palazzo Strozzi, entitled “Verrocchio Master of Leonardo.”  Here, for the first time ever, sculptures, paintings and drawings were borrowed from many of the best museums in the world to display the works of Verrocchio, one of the Renaissance great masters, who also was perhaps the greatest teacher producing in his workshop a crop of famous later masters, including Leonardo da Vinci. I understand this Exhibition will move this fall to the US for a few months.

From Florence I returned for a final two days in Rome, traveling via Tren Italo, a competing high speed train doing the entire journey at about 180 mph.  My Rome hotel room this time was across Via Cavour from my last apartment; I now had a balcony facing north over the majority of the Roman Forum and the massive “Altar to the Fatherland” monument, with exceptional evening views.  As in Florence, I used the time to pick up a few of the many sites previously missed.  This included a day spent in the Capitoline Museums on the hill above the Roman Forum.  Here one encounters most of the marble and bronze masterpieces excavated from the central part of ancient Rome.  These include the heroic sized bronze of Marco Aurelio on horseback, the incredible bronze of “Spinario,”, the seated boy pulling a thorn from his foot, the marble “Capitoline Galatian,” also known as the “Dying Gaul,” the marble “Capitoline Venus” and a stupendously detailed black marble centaur, recovered from Hadrian’s Villa.

On the 17th I flew from Rome to Madrid, stayed one night near the Chamartin Station and took the train the next day to Avila, the famous World Heritage Site walled city in Castillo y Leon, to spend Easter with the nightly solemn Processions from and to the Cathedral.

Some closing observations from Italy:

The trains and buses leave on time, and almost always arrive on time, usually within one minute of schedule.  And, for almost anywhere you want to go, convenient train service exists with departures throughout the day. Travel is much faster than by auto, and passes through beautiful countryside rather than along busy highways.

Tour groups are everywhere, but now something like 20% to 30% of all foreign groups are Chinese. This is something you just did not see 10 years ago.  Clearly the middle-class in China has grown substantially and now seeks to explore the world. I am curious to what extent the government promotes this.

About half of all late morning tour groups, in all museums and heritage sites, are middle-school students with drag-along teachers and/or parents trying (usually in vain) to maintain order and some semblance of silence inside the buildings.  As a teacher lectures about what is before the group, most of the students seem to pay little attention.  I suppose some of this cultural heritage finds a way in, and actually may reappear in the future as one acquires more context.

Selfies have become a scourge of travel photography.  Younger people no longer desire photos of just cathedrals or gated walls or Michelangelo marbles or da Vinci paintings or “leaning towers.”  All famous landmarks and works of art become simply settings and backdrops – the photographer becomes the main subject.  Most try infinitely overused poses or camera positions, and all require the subject to get as close as possible to any artwork.  The new Chinese tourists seem to have a special appetite for these, or more often small group photos.  Anyway, if one simply wants a photo of the edifice or work of art, it may be nearly impossible without including in the photo a constant stream of selfie subjects vying to stand in front of or as close to the famous piece as possible.  This somewhat narcissistic obsession with inserting self as the main subject into photos of all manner of external wonders bothers me at a deep level.  Clearly the phenomenon has emerged as part of the social media revolution. (Recent news reports make clear the obsession can become deadly when the backdrops are not man made, but include wild animals or scenic canyon overlooks).

I really like the Italian cigars made in Tuscany -Toscano Clasicos come 5 to the box at about $1.25 each – available in any tobacco shop in the country.  The tobacco, now grown in Tuscany, is a Kentucky variant grown initially for pipe mixtures. The tobacco apparently is allowed to ferment, and then the cigar is made with the moist leaves.  The final cigar is long, fat in the middle, and with a heavy ribbed leaf outer wrap.  The cigars are dry and so do not have to be maintained in humidity.  They look like a double cheroot joined at the fat end. They burn decent and long, and provide a mild smoke.

Many people have dogs they walk in the cobbled streets.  In Lucca, close to half the dogs I saw were odd versions of “wiener” dogs, aka dachshunds – this included short-haired, long-haired, wire-haired, longer legged and fat dogs, including one extraordinarily long dog where the backbone strained to hold the belly off the ground.  My family’s first dog in India was a dachshund of uncertain parentage, so I have always loved the breed.

Almost no one in Italy is overweight, despite the seeming occurrence in the “old towns” of ice-cream (gelato) shops almost every other block (pastry stores with sinful chocolate are in between). Families walk with ice cream dribbling from their cones, over their fingers and onto the street.  An exception to this healthful body appearance, you may guess, is with the American tourists; first you notice the expansive pants – then you pass by and hear the unaccented English.

Italians apparently cannot talk if they cannot gesture and wave their arms.  I have had Italians confirm this to me.  It is amusing to watch a person walking down the street, phone in pocket and headset on, talking to the air in front of their face (common in the Western world) – it is more amusing to watch an Italian doing same, but with both arms waving emphatically with various gestures.  Even more amusing when someone is seated at a restaurant table, phone laid flat in front with speaker phone on, and the diner is conversing with the table while the arms are flailing.  I sometimes wish I was more expressive.

Goodbye Italy.  Later.  Dave

Travel Report from Naples and Florence, Italy, Apr. 10, 2019

Italy, during two time periods lasting a couple of centuries each, originated much of what we consider Western Civilization; the first was the height of the Roman Empire (roughly 0 to 200 AD), borrowing heavily on the preceding Greek and Macedonian traditions, and the second was the emergence of the Italian Renaissance (roughly 1350 to 1550).  For an intoxicating immersion in the output of these time periods, one definitely must spend lots of time in, and attention to, two geographic areas; the coastal area lining the Bay of Naples (Napoli) within the morning shadow of Mount Vesuvius, and the great city on the banks of the Arno River, Florence (Firenze).  Pompeii and Herculaneum, buried by Vesuvius’ eruption in 79AD, best preserved great living cities at Rome’s height, along with much of its best art in the form of frescos, mosaics and statuary.  For the output of Renaissance masters, Florence was ground zero producing the earliest, and subsequently also some of the greatest, artwork in paintings and sculpture; these masters included Donatello, Botticelli, da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian and Caravaggio.

I arrived in Naples on the West coast of Italy on Mar. 30, after a short bus haul from Bari on the Adriatic Sea.  Napoli, as it is known in Italy, reputedly has the best pizza on earth, though I cannot discern much difference from the pizza in Rome, Bari or Lecce – all are very thin crust in the middle, where, fresh from the wood ovens, the centers can be almost soupy with melted cheese and olive oil.  All are delicious as long as devoured before getting cold.  My apartment was located with over a dozen pizzerias nearby, as well as numerous coffee shops and pastry stores selling sinful dark chocolate stuffed in every type of pastry imaginable.

My apartment, on the 5th floor of a very old building, was huge and bright, modern, two levels, and had 3 sets of 12 foot double wooden doors which each opened onto balconies.  The two eastern balconies looked north and south on Via Duomo, the main street in the Old City which runs by the cathedral; to the south the Bay of Napoli could be seen.  The north facing balcony opened directly on the Duomo square and main entrance to the 13th century cathedral, an amazing sight which fully caught the afternoon sun.

My first day I visited the gothic Church of San Lorenzo Maggiore, with a number of huge rooms around its cloister, each with colorful wall designs, used during the 15th and 16th centuries for various political purposes.  More interesting was what lay under the church; excavations allow one now to descend many meters under this part of the city to walk the complete original stone roadways, lined with shops and bakery stores, and other merchants, of the original Greek and Roman settlements. I also visited the small church called the Pia Monte della Misericordia Museum to view the famous Caravaggio painting called “Obras de Misericordia.”

On Monday I took a local train (see photo of colorful graffiti covered train below) south around the bay to the west side of Mt. Vesuvius where sits the ancient city of Pompeii.  I had little idea how vast an area now has been uncovered – the entire wealthy and main commercial part of the city all are preserved, and one walks along the original stone paved streets of the city just as they existed up until the fateful day of Vesuvius eruption in 79AD.  The building roofs mostly were destroyed, but the walls, gardens, taverns, shops etc. all remain.  The boulder paved streets show the deep ruts cut over the centuries from the wheeled carts and wagons which plied the ancient thruways.  I spent five hours walking most of the main routes through the excavated parts of the city, visiting dozens of wealthy houses, a few maintaining still some fine wall frescos and floor mosaics.

At the main crossroads of Pompeii lies the huge Forum, full of columns, with the adjoining granary, now housing hundreds of amphorae and other items.  The southeast side of the city held the side by side Teatro Piccolo, or Odeon, and the large Teatro.  Further east lay the huge Amphiteatro where the gladiators fought. After the hours of wandering I truly was tired at the end.

A few of the villas have in situ original mosaics and wall frescos. Among my favorites, photo included below, note the vicious black dog mosaic which covered the floor at the entrance to a huge villa – the dog is chained, but the message is as clear today as any posted sign stating “BEWARE OF DOG” –  and the 2,000 year old posting is far more beautiful and impressive.  The partial Alexander Mosaic is a stunning work of tiny mosaic stones depicting horses in battle with an amazing 3D depth and lifelike moving quality; the photo I have included is of the original which now resides in the Museum discussed below.  Among the in situ frescos, I particularly enjoyed the small room walls with complex garden scenes.  Finally, individual personages in frescos were on display from the nearby ruins of Moregine, which seemed to depict gauze and loose clothing as well as some renaissance masters.

The following day I wanted to visit Herculaneum, the sister city to Pompeii, somewhat smaller and less crowded with tourists; unfortunately I arrived at the railroad station to find the regional train serving the Bay area shut down – a result of a workers’ 1 day strike.  I decided then to visit the museums I had scheduled for the following day, only to find they all were closed on Tuesdays. Because of my scheduling then I never made it to Herculaneum.

I later visited the Naples’ highlight, the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, where the best frescos, mosaics and statuary of Pompeii and Herculaneum have been preserved, along with objects from the temples and many implements of daily life.  At the museum one discovers why Pompeii, which seems so perfectly complete and undisturbed, has so few interior spaces still decorated with the famous wall paintings and floor coverings – all have been removed over the past 150 years.  Many were stolen or taken out of the country.  In most cases, just portions of the plaster or mosaic highlights were cut out and retained to be presented elsewhere in frames.  Thus the entire wall or floor coverings were removed from their original location just to preserve pieces.  Some of the signage in the Museum admits that even much of the more recent archaeological work thus destroyed the in situ beauty of what was so perfectly preserved in Pompeii.  Nevertheless, on two floors of the huge museum, room after room is full of small and large fragments of the painted wall frescos and vast and intricate floor mosaics.  I have included a large number of photos below, together with photos of the current villas and casas in Pompeii; mentally one must attempt to put the decorations back together with the architecture.

On Wednesday I visited the Cappella Sansevero at opening to avoid the worst crowds.  It contains one of the world’s great marble sculptures –  “The Veiled Christ” by Sanmartino. Indeed I found it a masterpiece, depicting the dead body of Christ, after crucifixion, covered completely by a veil.  “Astounding” is the correct word describing the appearance of the veil, folds and all, which looks utterly transparent over the body and face of Christ, yet all sculpted from the single block of marble.

On Thursday I took the super-high-speed train, the Frescciarossa, from Naples to Florence – the train travels at 300 KPH, or about 185mph.  It is sufficiently smooth and quiet that, but for the scenery rushing by at incredible speed, one has little idea how fast it is going (bragging rights for these high-speed trains means they put monitors in the passenger compartments which show a speedometer).

My apartment in Florence was the largest I have so far had, 990 sqft; a large living room with two windows over the street, and a huge dining and kitchen area and neighboring bedroom, both with ancient high wooden double doors opening onto an outside terrace.  These large apartments are often in better locations than any hotels (all of my lodging so far has been absolutely central with superb locations – I have only used one hotel). In bridge season like now, I get them at great prices, generally cheaper than most mid-range hotel rooms which are tiny by comparison.  The restaurant next door is Tuscan classic, extremely busy, but wonderful food.

The Florence art scene must be the envy of the world – here there was far too much to digest in a few days.  The crown jewel was the Uffizi Gallery with its massive collection of Italian Renaissance paintings; most were commissioned or acquired in Florence by the Medici family or other nobility during the Renaissance, and most were acquired by or gifted to the Uffizi centuries ago.  Three of the only 15 da Vinci paintings in existence reside here, jostling for space with Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli, Caravaggio and Titian works, all of which fill rooms.  Four hours and my feet wouldn’t allow more time.

The next morning was reserved for the Bargello Museum, filled with its statuary including several pieces by Michelangelo and Donatello’s two different David’s, one in marble, the other bronze.  Sansovino’s Bacchus in marble was made to compete with Michelangelo’s earlier one, and later joined by Giambologna’s bronze, all three of which are found in the same room.  Finally I visited the Gallery Accademia with its masterpiece, Michelangelo’s huge marble of David.  The Accademia held a number of other Michelangelo marbles, and a huge collection of Byzantine-Gothic-very-early Renaissance painted panels.

My final full day I visited the Basilica Santa Maria Novella, with its huge Romanesque exterior and gothic cloisters and austere interior. The Gothic marble facade is a delight for the eyes.  Inside were more riches, from Gothic to early Renaissance frescos and wood panels painted by Masaccio, Botticelli, Uccello and Giotto, all very early artists.

Bottom line, Florence simply contains way too much to try to take in on one visit.  On Tuesday I head to a small town, Lucca, in western Tuscany, where the medieval city walls still are in place.  Smaller towns permit a much less frenetic pace in trying to soak up the history.

Later.  Dave

Travel Report on Southern Italy – Rome – Lecce – Bari – Matera, Mar. 30, 2019

Gastronomically, Italy compares well with other northern Mediterranean locales. Although I again am drinking mostly red wine – wonderful but not as cheap as in Spain – I have found the Italian Birra Moreti La Rossa on tap to be an extremely malty double bock German beer and quite excellent.  Half the restaurants are pizzerias although most serve more than pizzas.  The pizza generally is excellent, always thin crust with fresh ingredients, unlike the horrid thick breaded pizzas with thawed toppings served often in the US.  Travel is relatively easy, as train service is widespread and comfortable.

The trip to Rome commenced with a flight from Hell – the regional AA flight Tucson to Dallas was delayed 6 times for “mechanical” issues, while all later scheduled flights left on time – ahead of our earlier “delayed” flight.  This caused me missed international connections, twice, with scheduled flights to London and on to Rome.  Twice I had to exit secured gate areas to be rescheduled at the check-in desks.  Then in Dallas, where American had massive cancelled flight problems due to weather, I had to find a special line, one hour wait, to get a boarding pass for the onward flight from London, which the computers in Tucson couldn’t issue.  Upon final arrival in Rome, now late at night, the timing coincided with the simultaneous arrival of 4 jumbo jets from China, full of new Chinese tourists, creating massive lines through the terminal trying to get through passport check.  I did not feel as “joyful” as usual upon arrival.

In Rome I stayed in a large “apartment” type room, with balcony, right at the end of Via Cavour, half a block from overlooking the Roman Forum and the forums of Minerva, Caesar and Augustus, and within sight of the Colosseum about 3 blocks away.  I spent five days wandering through the various ruins, and walking the narrow streets to the Pantheon and Trevi Fountain.

From Rome I traveled by high speed rail the long distance south to Lecce in Italy’s heel.  Here the “Old City”, with its maze of alleys and narrow stone streets, almost 100% was uniformly constructed in the 17th and early 18th centuries in late renaissance and baroque style; all structures built of soft yellowish stone giving the entire town an unusual ancient feel.  Scattered throughout are excavated Roman constructions (a small theater and larger amphitheater) over which the baroque city now sits.  My accommodations were in an apartment – really several large rooms – part of an old palace (Palazzo Bernardini).

Part of the excitement of foreign travel is associated with eating in restaurants where the menus are indecipherable, and the waiters do not speak English or Spanish.  In my favorite Lecce eatery, I ordered what appeared to be translatable as a dish of rice mixed with meats – turned out to be a huge load of grilled meats and sausages on a board.  A little heavy, but good.  Later, trying to chat with a local at the bar, I discovered that a couple of the meat cuts and the sausages were horse (my sister will be upset with me – she always loved horses).  It seems Italy eats more horse than any other country, and the heaviest consumption is down south in the heel, i.e. Lecce.  Later, at another restaurant, having carefully checked that no horse (cavallo) was listed, I later discovered that foal or young horse requires a different menu word.

From Lecce I traveled the short distance back northwest by train to Bari on the coast – Bari also has a large Old Town sitting between two harbors on a peninsula sticking north into the Adriatic Sea.  Here sits one of the more amazing churches I have visited anywhere; the Basilica St. Nicolas.  Saint Nicholas is one and the same with St Nick, aka Father Christmas.  Much venerated by Catholic and Orthodox Christians in the northeastern Mediterranean region, I had visited the Island of St Nicolas and his original burial place in Southern Turkey.  Apparently in the 11th century Italian sailors removed his bones from his burial tomb, and brought them to Bari where a Norman built a large crypt as the new burial chamber and constructed the massive Romanesque Basilica over it.  Now devout Orthodox Christians and Catholics pilgrimage to the site and light candles, sit and pray, and kiss the icons and glass encased relics of the saint in the underground crypt.  Above, the church constitutes a massive towering Romanesque structure, outside a brilliant white stone, and inside rows of columns with carved capitals and spanning arches.  The very high ceiling is 100% covered with colorful frescos.

From Bari I traveled by local train to Matera in the neighboring region of Basilicata.  Old Matera is a World Heritage site, one of the oldest continuously occupied cities on earth.  The two halves of the ancient city sit in opposite tilted bowls which descend from a high ridge into a steep and deep canyon with a small river. At the top of the ridge rises the massive cathedral. The rock bowl and cliff faces all are a soft, yellow-white sandstone or volcanic tuft, and are full of natural caves.  Many of the upper caves have been converted into sculpted cave dwellings over the past 1,000 years.  Throughout the middle ages, Byzantine era and into the baroque period large numbers of churches and convents also were carved into the soft stone.  Inside, on walls and ceilings, most of the religious structures were covered originally with colorful frescos, now much destroyed within the last century as the country forced a clean-up the deplorable conditions the people had lived in.  Within the last several decades most of the better preserved caves have been converted to houses or opened as cave museums which can be visited.  Architecture and frescos which still can be seen within the best churches, including in those now built above ground, date mostly from the 11th through the 16th centuries, and usually patterned on Byzantine style.  In many ways this could be a sister location to the great fairy chimney caves and cave churches around Goreme in Cappadocia, central Turkey, although the Turkey cave churches are often older, superior in construction and many still completely covered with wonderful frescos.

As with a few other unusual sites I have visited, Matera is one of those magical places where the normal laws of physics do not apply.  After a day of roaming the narrow and very steep alleys and never ending stairways, it seems clear upon return to the day’s starting point that one has ascended far more than descended.

The weather often has been overcast, cold and windy.  Not unexpected for early spring. From Matera I returned to Bari to catch the direct bus to Naples on the opposite coast.

Later.  Dave


Travel Report from Kenya – Kakamega Forest, Masai Mara NR and Ol Kinyei Conservancy, Dec. 11, 2018

I traveled, again by private car and driver, from the Great Rift Valley lakes to the far West of Kenya, where the last remaining tropical forest remains – the Kakamega Forest is equatorial forest which extends from the West of Kenya through Uganda and into the Congos. Here can still be found equatorial bird and primate species not found elsewhere. I stayed at the Rondo Retreat deep inside the forest. With a good bird guide set for the first morning, my plans were badly altered when, as I went to bed, I suddenly developed severe pain in my left foot behind the big toe. I was certain I had fractured one of the Metatarsals, although I had experienced no trauma. I could not sleep most of the night and could not walk, and the next day cancelled all other plans and had my driver drive me an hour and half to the third largest city in Kenya, Kisumu, on the shores of Lake Victoria. There I went to the emergency room of the largest hospital, and spent some hours getting through all the bureaucracy. Finally seeing an orthopedic surgeon, I had X-Rays and blood tests as well as a physical exam. The Dr. absolutely ruled out a fracture, and noting the extreme tenderness around the joint between the 2nd and 3rdMeta Tarsals, as well as a slightly high uric acid level (which I admitted to having had for years), he pronounced the likely culprit a sudden severe onset of gout in that joint. Without going into more detail, I survived the pain for 3 days, then acquired some naproxen (Aleve in prescription strength). I have managed with only slight soreness since, and concluded I should be fine until back in the US.

Upon learning I had no fracture, just pain, I returned to Kakamega for two more nights, and managed to hobble around with my guide to get photos of some new monkeys and birds, including the Guereza Colobus, Blue Monkey, Black and White Casqued Hornbill and Joyful Greenbul.

From Kakamega Forest we returned to Kisumu for one evening and then proceeded south to the famous Masai Mara National Reserve. The Masai Mara is in the Southwestern corner of Kenya, and is bordered to the South by the Serengeti Plains of Tanzania. It is between these two great Parks that the largest migrations on earth take place twice a year, when more than a million Blue Wildebeest and Zebra follow the rains first north and then back south. In Masai Mara they must cross the Mara River, which forms a deep channel through the grasslands; this river is home not only to innumerable Hippos, but the largest Nile Crocodiles on earth. Most of you probably have seen the wildlife videos of the Wildebeest crossing where the giant Crocs wait just under the water, springing up to grab the poor creatures by the heads to drag them to their death. The smaller rivers and grassland/woodland areas provide sustenance to not only the aforementioned,but countless Topi, Grant’s and Thomson’s Gazelles, giraffe, buffalo, elephant,Black Rhino, and the heaviest concentration of Lions anywhere, as well as all the larger carnivores, the Leopards, Cheetahs, Hyenas and Jackals.

The Ilkiliani Tented Camp was on the Talek River which marks the Eastern boundary of the Reserve. My second day was a very good one for the least seen carnivores. Early morning found us joining a few other vehicles by a tall dirt mound on which sat a beautiful Leopard studying the surrounds for game. This sighting is quite unusual as leopards usually only are out at dusk to dawn, and seldom seen during the day. Less than half an hour later I spotted another mound in the distance topped by a sitting cat which turned out to be a Cheetah. We were alone with the Cheetah when a Spotted Hyena came along, apparently following the Cheetah. I could hardly believe it when the Hyena started up the side of the mound and approached the cat, which crouched and snarled. The hyena was twice the weight of the Cheetah. When the hyena moved to within about 6 feet the Cheetah moved faster than the eye could follow, and struck the hyena on the nose with all claws extended. I actually captured that action photo, as well as the prologue and epilogue photos, which are included below in sequence.

New birds for me in the Park included two Lapwings, the African Wattled and the Black-winged, which is found almost nowhere else. Along the Talek River and around camp I also photographed the beautiful tiny Klass’s Cuckoo and African Paradise Flycatcher.

From the Masai Mara I drove the short distance to the Ol Kinyei Conservancy on the edge of the Park, where I spent my last 4 safari days in the tented Porini Mara camp. Here I had private game drives with bird guide and driver, and spent 6 hours daily seeking bird and mammals. We had wonderful luck and spent much of two days with two prides of lions, including, finally, 3mature black maned males (the beautiful black maned lions are basically only found around the Serengeti and Masai Mara). We first encountered the pride off males with 2 half-grown cubs and 3 6-week old cubs. As the mother of the younger cubs crossed in front of our vehicle 2 of the youngsters followed her into the brush, but one stopped and appeared transfixed by the front of my land-cruiser. He kept approaching, to within 15 feet, and at times appeared to open his mouth in a tiny snarl (see photo). His mother had long since disappeared into the brush, and when he finally realized he was alone, he chose to backtrack as opposed to following his mother. Fortunately the other female with older cubs joined him and he was soon dashing off after the others.

The following day we encountered all three dark-maned males. Two twins in full prime were sleeping just under the edge of brush. One rolled onto his back and made an enormous toothy yawn (see photo). The other laying on his side occasionally opened one eye to view my camera located just feet away. That gaze was scary. Later we found the other large male coming out of a thicket and sitting in the mid-morning light in full glory. He was magnificent.

The third day, seeking a Cheetah family, we wound up finding two families; first a mother with two fully grown male twins, and later a second mother with 3 half-grown cubs. We followed the first family for a couple of hours, watching first one failed chase of an Impala, then a second chase for a Thomson’s Gazelle which was successful, although bushes and a ravine prevented our seeing the actual kill. We spent over an hour watching the family devour the antelope. The twin males played a macabre tug-of-war over the almost fully formed fetus discovered inside the kill. A couple of hours later we encountered the second Cheetah family, a mother with 3 younger cubs. The mother just had successfully dispatched a Thomson’s Gazelle. I settled down for an hour again while the 4cats devoured the creature (Thomson’s Gazelles are quite small, being half the size of an impala). Somewhat gruesome was the later game that evolved with the 3 cubs playing with the head of the kill. On both kills I was able to take extensive high definition video, which I wish I could display on the website but the file sizes are enormous. When the four Cheetahs were down to eating the rib-cage, one could hear clearly the crunching sounds of the devoured bones.

Later we found two Black-backed Jackals with the kill of an unidentifiable young antelope, joined by a Tawny Eagle nearby taking care of the entrails. Finally we found three large families of Spotted Hyenas; one family had just made a kill of a baby Topi,and the matriarch of the group kept all other hyenas away excepting only her lone cub. The tussles and attempts by the others to get pieces of the kill were quite savage, with the matriarch driving them off one at a time while others tried from different angles. I got good photos of the bloody scene.

Later I finally got to get reasonably close to a pair of Bat-eared Foxes hunting in the rain. Such sightings are rare, usually made at night, with the animals being very timid of permitting vehicles to get close. Of birds we saw many raptors, including the incredible Lappet-headed Vulture eating the leg of some beast, Black-chested Snake-Eagle, Tawny Eagle working on the entrails of a Jackal kill, Pygmy Falcon, Secretary Bird and Sooty Falcon.

My final two evenings the skies opened up and it rained – I was told this was the first rain in 3 months and the parched earth and grazing animals badly needed it. My final morning drive was an exceptionally muddy one, with our Land-Cruiser constantly slipping and sliding. From a small dirt air-strip I took a small bush-flight back to Nairobi. Tomorrow I head for the international airport and the 30 hour flight back to Tucson. So this wonderful Africa trip comes to an end. Later. Dave

Travel Report on Samburu, Mount Kenya, Aberdares and Great Rift Valley Parks, Kenya, Nov. 29, 2018

My driver picked me up from the Meridian Hotel in Nairobi on Nov. 21 and we drove the long 6 hours to the north of Mount Kenya to Samburu National Park. There I stayed at the Sopa Lodge, deep inside the wooded grasslands dotted with rocky hills.  Just to the south side was the heavily wooded river basin.  Along the dry lands and riverside we encountered a number of African specialties found nowhere further south in Africa.  These included the Reticulated Giraffe, Beisa Oryx, Gerenuk and Grevy’s Zebra, along with lots of African Elephants, Lions and Olive Baboons, all of which are included below in photos.  The first afternoon a pride of lions near the river killed a full grown giraffe – very unusual to take on such a large and formidable prey (a kick or head butt by a large giraffe will easily kill or disable a lion).  Around the lodge a number of dryland bird species were encountered, including the Von der Decken’s, Eastern Yellow-billed, Red-billed and Jackson’s Hornbills.  One particular encounter was memorable – an Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill caught a huge grasshopper and spent the better part of 5 minutes trying to swallow it head-first.  The grasshopper was too big for the bird’s throat, and it kept choking it back out.  I did get a series of remarkable and humorous photos, a couple of which are included.

After three days in Samburu we headed back south to the southwestern flanks of Mt. Kenya inside the Mt. Kenya National Park, a high altitude lush forested landscape.  Mt. Kenya is the second highest mountain in Africa, just a tad shorter than Kilimanjaro, and is also an extinct volcano.  The wet heavy forest covering its lower slopes provide habitat for a number of unusual bird species, but most are very difficult to see as they remain deep in the heavy bushes and trees, and it is not possible to walk the trails as the area is home to large families of African Buffalo and Elephant, both of which are deadly when encountered in deep forest.  I did some walks along the single track entrance road, accompanied by a professional guide and an armed ranger.  There the birds encountered included the Hartlaub’s Turaco, Cape Robin-Chat and Cinnamon Bracken Warbler.  At night, from my room’s balcony overlooking a swampy water hole, I recorded the high cries of a Spotted Hyena as it passed on the far side of the marsh at 3 am.

From Mt. Kenya’s slopes we drove West across the valley to the Aberdares Mountains and National Park where I stayed at the rustic lodge named just The Ark.  It is situated on another marshy watering hole, which in evening was surrounded by Elephant and Buffalo uneasily jockeying for space to pick up the mineral salts in the red muddy soil.  A number of shorter and less expensive safari tours visit here and watching many visitor’s reactions and joy at seeing families of Elephants arriving at dusk helped me relive my first such encounters decades ago.  The hills also brag an exceptional number of birds, and just walking the board walk, safely located high above the forested floor, I captured a number of new bird species, including the Golden-winged and Eastern Double-collared Sunbirds.  I also for the first time saw a Giant Forest Hog, immense with a huge wide disc face, similar to a huge Asian Wild Boar.

We drove next around the Aberdares down into the Great Rift Valley, part of the Great Rift of Eastern Africa which runs 5,000 kilometers from the Red Sea south to southern Tanzania.  This is one of the rare spots, outside ocean trenches, where two tectonic plates are pulling apart.  This also is the area where for over 2 million years human’s ancestors evolved.  Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the Leakeys, is just to the south.  In central Kenya the Rift Valley has partially filled with a series of large lakes, some of which are soda lakes, filled with Flamengos and other crustacean-feeding birds, while the others are fresh water lakes filled with hippos, cormorants, herons and kingfishers.  Most are within large National Parks or private conservancies.  I stayed at the delightful Sunbird Lodge, overlooking Lake Elementaita, a soda lake.  The huge grounds of the Lodge provide a large number of flowering plants and fruiting trees which attract a number of beautiful birds, including the Bronze, Variable and Amethyst Sunbirds, Blue-cheeked Starling, Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu, Purple Grenadier and Fischer’s Lovebird.  My cottage, a small house itself with a huge front porch overlooking the lake, sat about 80 feet below the lodge, requiring a stiff walk up or down a steep hillside.  Behind me were rocky cliffs with a large family of Rock Hyrax, which fed on the grasses and leaves around my house, with younger ones looking silly climbing the shorter shrubs and trees.

The first day in the Rift Valley I hired a local bird expert to visit the Soysambu Conservancy on the western shores of Lake Elementaita, where we encountered a number of birds including two Tawny Eagles which just had made a kill of a Great White Pelican – the Pelican is many times the size of the eagles and the evidence of the struggle was obvious.  The second day I hired a boat and bird guide to visit Lake Navaisha, a fresh water lake filled with hippos; Three months ago, upon my arrival in Nairobi, I read in the US news media of the Chinese tourist killed on this lake.  According to reports from local rangers I understand the Chinese rented a kayak and without guide attempted to approach the hippos in the small boat – very unwise.  The third day we just drove around Lake Nakuru, all part of the national park of the same name.  As White Rhino recently have been poached here, we encountered armed rangers wherever a Rhino was visible.  The lake shores supported huge herds of African Buffalo, many with new-born calves, and large families of Olive Baboons, also with many new babies.

For the most part my lodging has been adequate to superb, and the food almost always excellent.  From the Rift Valley I head further west to the Kakamega Forest near the border of Uganda.  Later.  Dave






Travel Report on Tsavo West and East National Parks, Shimba Hills Conservancy and Mombasa, Kenya, Nov. 18, 2018

We drove from Amboseli, on the northern flanks of Mt Kilimanjaro, south and east to Tsavo West National Park.  There I stayed in the wonderful Serena Lodge inside the Park.  My room, No. 14, was on the second floor directly overlooking two large water holes where I counted at least 10 different species of mammals which came to drink, both during the day and all night.  Large families of African Elephants would wade into the waters, followed by herds of Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck and Giraffe.  Occasional Buffalo and Black-backed Jackal also frequented the water along with Yellow Baboons.  Outside my room I had orange-headed Agami Lizards.  We drove game drives every morning where I picked up a number of interesting birds, including the Black-faced Sandgrouse and 4 species of hornbill – the Eastern Yellow-billed, Red-billed, African Grey and Von der Decken’s.

From Tsavo West we drove further south and east to the Tsavo East National Park, with pretty rolling forested hills but far less animal and birdlife.  The Park is famous (or, infamous) for its pair of Man-eating Lions; back in the 1890’s the railroad was constructed from Mombasa, the main seaport on the East coast of Africa, to Uganda.  Apparently 30 to 100 Indian workmen were stalked, killed and eaten by a lion pair during bridge construction, causing many workers to flee the area.  A British soldier finally killed the lions, which now are on display in the Chicago Field Museum.  Man-eating among lions is almost unknown, but this history gives the area quite a mystique.  Satao Camp was a tented camp, so once again I was in a semi-luxurious huge tent bedroom, with large bath area, and insect netted openings on all sides.  Here the nearby waterhole was further away, but every evening just after sunset the Hippos would exit the water and march slowly by my tent, which was well away from the dining – registration area.  Guests had to be escorted to and from the tents when dark, as the hippos are the most dangerous animals in the country.  I found here the beautiful Golden-breasted Starlings, and the super-strange looking Vulturine Guinea Fowl with huge dazzling bodies of electric-blue and silver stripes, pencil thin high necks which become completely devoid of feathers near the head, except for a ring of rust-red fluff around the back, and a small head with barren black skin and beak.  The head does for all-the-world resemble that of a vulture.

From Tsavo East we traveled to the Shimba Hills Conservancy south of Mombasa, where I spent two days in the lovely Shimba Hills Lodge, overlooking a small stream and pond, both ruled over by a gorgeous pair of immense African Fish Eagles.  The eagles were visible at all hours of the day, sitting on high branches of trees on all sides of the pond, and often loudly crying as they would simultaneously swoop to the pond, passing each other and ritualistically exchanging the tree branches they sat on.  Strange behavior, but fascinating to watch.  Unfortunately, the Shimba Hills, although beautiful forested hills, contain very few birds and very few species of birds.  The one ranger I spoke with told me the Park had 111 species – this is less than half the number of species we have just around my desert town of Tucson, and as Kenya has more species of birds than any country in Africa I simply cannot understand the dearth of birds in this area.

While dining, overlooking the small lake, we entertained food beggars, both at noon and evening meals; noon produced a bushy orange and grey squirrel which would come under our chairs looking for intentionally dropped food.  Evenings we were visited by a Bush-baby, one of the nocturnal primates of Africa – this one would not just beg, but climb the outer railing by the table or an empty chair and steal food off the table.  I lost a roll the first evening, and barely managed to salvage an egg roll the second.

Wednesday morning I left early to take care of a nagging problem I have had since arrival; Kenya has for years provided 90 day tourist visas upon arrival, but the week before my return from Madagascar the Director of Immigration issued a directive reducing all such visas to 30 days, and requiring a return to an Immigration office near the end of that period for any extension; my total time is 44 days.  I tried but could not convince management in the Nairobi main office to grant me an extension while I was there just days after the visa was issued.  It looked like I would have to break my safari travel for a day or more while in the West of Kenya to return to Nairobi just to get the extension.  I had my driver leave early and traveled to the Mombasa Immigration Office Wednesday morning, where the lone officer, after reviewing my flight tickets for returning to the US, granted me an extension of 14 days to extend my visa to my departure date.  This now leaves me worry free to enjoy the balance of my safari travel to the north and west of the country.

The Mombasa hotel I had booked months in advance had me wait a couple of hours for room cleaning, then the manager told me they had no rooms available as they had unexpectedly agreed to house an entire German Delegates meeting which required special security.  They booked me in another hotel for which I had to pay twice as much and endure a location much further from the Old Town for which I had come to Mombasa – basically the Voyager Resort comprises a beach and pool destination for Eastern Europeans and wealthy Kenyan families with little kids.  Oh well, the food was good and the ocean view terrific.

Mombasa has the major seaport of East Africa; it was visited by the earliest Portuguese explorers, starting with Vasco da Gama in 1498.  In the 1590s the Portuguese built the huge Fort Jesus (now a World Heritage Site) to protect the port.  Nevertheless, control of Mombasa has changed at least 9 times.  For long periods Mombasa, along with Zanzibar, were under the control of Oman or Omanis in Mombasa.  For centuries it was the major African seaport for trade in spices, gold, ivory and slaves.  I visited the Fort Friday morning, traveling there by the wonderful tuktuks (3 wheel motorized taxi bikes) which ply the city’s narrow alleys, and break every decent traffic law – if there are such laws.  A highlight of the Fort was walls with intricate drawings (graffiti) left by Portuguese sailors around 1600 – most are of various types of ships and boats.

Saturday I returned by air to Nairobi for two nights, again in the Meridian Hotel, after which I start the long stretch of my safari, going north and west for a total of 21 days, visiting 10 different Parks and Reserves.  Later.  Dave